• تلفن09197544858
  • ایمیلfardadtahvieh@yahoo.com
  • آدرساستان البرز ، کرج ، میدان استاندارد ، بلوار کامیونداران ، شهرک صنفی و صنعتی ، کوی اقاقیا ، اقاقیا دوم
  • ساعتهای آزاد08:00 - 14:00
  • تلفن09197544858
  • ایمیلfardadtahvieh@yahoo.com
  • آدرساستان البرز ، کرج ، میدان استاندارد ، بلوار کامیونداران ، شهرک صنفی و صنعتی ، کوی اقاقیا ، اقاقیا دوم
  • ساعتهای آزاد08:00 - 14:00

The reversal cost method is similar to the last technique illustrated in Method 1. The waste heat from the open hearths is reused to generate the steam required by the various production departments. Entries in the journal for Method 2 involve charges to by-product revenue for the additional work required, and potentially also for factory overhead.

There aren’t any different raw materials or processes used for the same. To sell it in the market, some processing may be done on it, if required. When there are multiple products created from a production process, the byproducts can be discerned by seeing which ones have a minor resale value in comparison to the value of the other products. If there is no clear differentiation between primary products and byproducts, treat them all as primary products. A by-product is a secondary, incidental, unintended product or substance produced during an industrial production process or action.

Modern catalytic converters can oxidize carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide, convert unburned fuel particles into carbon dioxide and water, and reduce nitrogen oxide into nitrogen and oxygen. These devices can significantly reduce, but not totally eliminate, the byproducts of incomplete combustion. In this method, a joint production cost is not allocated to the by-product. Any revenue resulting from the sale of the by-product is credited either to income or to the cost of the main product.

Method 1 is a typical non-cost procedure in which the final inventory cost of the main product is overstated to the extent that some of the cost belongs to the by-product. As such, the by-product can serve as an additional source of income. The product with the greater value, commonly called the main product, is usually produced in greater quantities than the by-product.

Finish Your Free Account Setup

Inside the lungs, these particles interfere with oxygen processing, irritate lung tissue, and can eventually destroy the lungs. PM-2.5 are considered the most dangerous type of particulate pollution. Unvented space heaters, gas ovens, car exhaust, and tobacco smoke are the largest sources of CO. Many people suffer slight poisoning from CO every day from cigarettes, car exhaust, and faulty combustion devices. Remember, CO can kill you so assume that you are breathing CO if you smell combustion gases, and go outdoors immediately.

  • That substance is Ethylene – a vital ingredient in manufacturing all the plastic products like polythene shopping bags, PVS pipes, etc.
  • A by-product is typically the leftovers from an activity that continues to be useful to your company, but doesn’t contribute directly to its intended purpose or production process.
  • Carbon-monoxide and smoke alarms are now common products that the building code requires in all new homes.
  • The waste heat from the open hearths is reused to generate the steam required by the various production departments.
  • This avoids the need to purchase certain materials from outside suppliers.

Though a by-product is unintended, it has commercial value, contrary to the waste, which has no or a very little value. For example, soybean meal is produced from soybean oil processing or grape seed oil is produced from leftovers of the winemaking process. The by-product should be recorded as inventory until its intended marketability has been established. The cost of a by-product is attributed to individual products manufactured using it if those products are finished and ready for sale, or if there is a market for the by-products. If a market is not established, the cost of the by-product remains in ending inventory until it is sold as part of the main products.

CO poisoning reverses itself after the victim breathes enough fresh air. However, severe CO poisoning may require treatment in a barometric chamber at the hospital. In addition, the production (manufacturing) cost of the main product is credited. The replacement cost method is usually applied by firms whose by-products are used within the plant.


These pricing strategies need to be referred so that we can understand pricing later on. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Examples of byproducts are manure from a feedlot operation, sawdust at a sawmill, salt from a desalination plant, and straw from a grain harvesting operation. Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.

Do you own a business?

The proceeds from sales of the by-product are credited to the by-product account. Any additional costs in terms of materials, labor, or factory overheads that are incurred after the split-off from the main product are charged to the by-product. However, it reduces the manufacturing cost of the main product not by the actual revenue received, but by an estimate of the by-product’s value at the time of recovery.


Hence, here the customer doesn’t have much choice but to buy the ink from the manufacturer only. So, the manufacturer can afford to price the ink at premium levels as his customer base is almost guaranteed. Carbon-monoxide and smoke alarms are now common products that the building code requires in all new homes. These alarms wake occupants if the concentration of CO or smoke becomes dangerous. Building owners can buy combination alarms that sound an alarm or talk when they sense either CO or smoke.

Some portion of the joint production cost is allocated to the by-product. Inventory costs are based on the allocated cost, plus any subsequent processing cost. Thus, pricing the by-products is an essential strategy for the business. A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced.

Thus, a sale of a By-Product can be beneficial to the business if that is priced correctly and at optimum levels by the business. The main products of this industry are whole logs, but every tree has branches and smaller sections that can’t be used as full logs. These sections are typically ground up in a wood chipper to make wood chips. These are then sold to professional landscapers and home garden enthusiasts. In certain chemical reactions such as nuclear fuel processing, the resulting byproducts cannot be marketed as part of the main product and are too dangerous to be marketed individually. Disposing them off in their original form can result in pollution or other harmful effects.

He or she is interested in producing milk, but the manure is created during the process. Smoke is the second most dangerous hazard from combustion byproducts. Smoke particles settle deep in your lungs because they are very small, 2.5 microns or less (PM-2.5).

Where this treatment process is not possess, companies need to find a way to contain these byproducts. All costs not reasonably attributable to any one product are considered period costs, and should be recorded on the income statement as sg&a (selling, general and administrative expenses). Alternatively, if the by-product has a market value at that split-off point, the by-product account is charged with this market value.

The typical accounting for any revenues generated from byproducts is to offset them against the cost of goods sold for the primary products that are generated from the manufacturing system. It is also acceptable to record these revenues as miscellaneous revenue. However, recording the sale of byproducts as miscellaneous revenue will result in a minor increase in the amount of reported sales.

The byproduct is simply a minor product whose output is an inevitable result of a particular manufacturing process; the main process is not affected or altered by this derivative. Byproducts, or by-products, are products with relatively little value that emerge from a common process along with monthly bookkeeping the main products. The main products have significant value and are referred to as joint products. The point at which the byproducts and joint products emerge from the common process is known as the split-off point. The costs prior to the split-off point are known as the common costs.

Which of these is most important for your financial advisor to have?

This indoor pollution includes the poisonous gas such as carbon monoxide (CO), and tiny airborne particles such as soot. CO poisoning is the most common and serious combustion-safety hazard. However tobacco smoke is a leading cause of chronic respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Incomplete combustion can produce a variety of different byproducts, depending on the fuel burned. For instance, incomplete burning of hydrocarbons produces carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas.

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *